Partner territory - Donetsk
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Donetsk was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines in the southern part of the Russian Empire at Aleksandrovka (Ukrainian: Олександрівка). The town initially was given the name Hughesovka (Yuzovka; Russian: Юзовка; Ukrainian: Юзівка). By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzovka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants, and had attained the status of a city in 1917. The main district of "Hughezovka" named English Colony. The British origin of the city reflected in its layout and architecture. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, and in the next year — 80,085. In 1929-31 the city's name was changed to Stalino. The city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid underground. In July 1933, the city became the administrative center of the Donetsk Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1933, the first 12 km sewer system was installed, and next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city. In addition, some sources state that the city was briefly called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923. 

Geography and climate

Donetsk lies in the steppe landscape of Ukraine, surrounded by scattered woodland, hills (spoil tips), rivers and lakes. The northern outskirts of the city are mainly used for agriculture. The Sea of Azov, 95 km south of Donetsk, is a popular recreational area for those living in Donetsk. A wide belt of farmlands surrounds the city. The city stretches 28 km from north to south and 55 km from east to west. There are 2 nearby reservoirs: Nyzhnekalmius (60 ha), and the "Donetsk Sea" (206 ha). 5 rivers flow through the city, including the Kalmius, Asmolivka (13 km), Cherepashkyna (23 km), Skomoroshka and Bakhmutka. The city also contains a total of 125 spoil tips. Donetsk's climate is moderate continental. The average temperatures are ?5 °C (23 °F) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in June. The average number of rainfall per year totals 162 days and up to 556 millimetres per year.


Donetsk currently has a population of over 982,000 inhabitants (2010) and has a metropolitan area of over 1,566,000 inhabitants (2004). It is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.


Donetsk and the surrounding territories are heavily urbanized and agglomerated into conurbation. The workforce is heavily involved with heavy industry, especially coal mining. The city is an important center of heavy industry and coal mines in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and Ukraine. Directly under the city lie coal mines, which have recently seen an increase in mining accidents, the most recent accident being at the Zasyadko mine, which killed over 100 workers. Donetsk's economy consists of about 200 industrial organizations that have a total production output of more than 50 billion hryvnias per year and more than 20,000 medium-small sized organizations. The city's coal mining industry comprises 17 coal mines and two concentrating mills; the metallurgy industry comprises 5 large metallurgical plants located throughout the city; the engineering market comprises 67 organizations, and the food industry — 32 organizations.


After the fall of the Soviet Union, Donetsk and other neighboring cities of the Donbass suffered heavily, as many factories were closed down and many inhabitants lost their jobs. However, in spite of the difficult economic situation in Ukraine, Donetsk is a developing city. About 412 thousand m? of living space, 7.9 km of gas networks, and 15.1 km of water supply networks were constructed in the city during 1998–2001. The city also houses the "Donetsk" special economic zone. Donetsk currently has nine sister cities. The German city of Magdeburg had economic partnerships with Donetsk during 1962–1996. The airline Donbassaero has its head office on the property of Donetsk International Airport. In 2012, Donetsk was admitted as the best city for business in Ukraine by Forbes. Donetsk topped the rating in five indicators: human capital, the purchasing power of citizens, investment climate, economic stability, as well as infrastructure and comfort.




Donetsk is a large sports center, has a developed infrastructure. Donetsk has repeatedly held international competitions - Davis Cup, UEFA Champions League. Representatives of the city are the leaders in Ukraine in sports such as football, boxing, tennis, athletics and others. 

But the most popular in Donetsk is football. Three major professional football clubs play in the city, which include two clubs in the Ukrainian Premier League and one in the Ukrainian Second League: Shakhtar Donetsk, which plays at the Donbass Arena, Metalurh Donetsk, which plays at the Metalurh Stadium, and FC Olimpik Donetsk. Shakhtar Donetsk is 7-times winner of Ukrainian Championship and 8-time winner of Ukrainian Cup. In 2009, they became the second team from Ukraine (after Dynamo Kiev) to win a European competition, the UEFA Cup, beating Werder Bremen in the final. This also made them the last UEFA Cup winners before the tournament was rebranded as the UEFA Europa League. Shakhtar is now one of the most well-known clubs in Europe. Donbass Arena was opened on 29 August 2009 and became the first stadium in Eastern Europe designed and constructed according to UEFA standards for stadiums of "Elite" category.

Hockey club HC Donbass won the championship in Ukraine, and after playing one season in the Russian Major League, the club has built a Kontinental Hockey League regulation arena and joned the Kontinental Hockey League in 2012. When moving to play in the Russian Major League the club created a farm club to play in Ukraine called HC Donbass-2 which also won the local championship. MFC Shakhtar Donetsk won the Ukrainian futsal championship five times. The team was dissolved in January 2011 mid-way through the season. VC Shakhtar Donetsk were the last team to win the Soviet Volleyball Championship, in 1992. The city also has a team in the Ukrainian Basketball Super League, BC Donetsk, winner of Ukrainian Superleague (2012), three-times silver medal winner (2011, 2009, 1996), bronze medal winner (1996) In Donetsk, the USSR Tennis Championship took place within the city in 1978, 1979 and 1980 near the Donetsk Railroad tennis courts. Some tennis matches of the Davis Cup took place in Donetsk in 2005. In Donetsk, the Soviet Championship on Light Athletics in Youth took place in 1978, 1979, 1980 and 1984. A monument to famous pole vault athlete Serhiy Bubka is installed in the city. Donetsk annual held "Pole Vault Stars". In the city, sailboat championships take place on the city's Kalmius River. When the joint bid for the UEFA Euro 2012 was won by Poland and Ukraine, Donetsk's Donbass Arena was chosen as the location for three Group D matches, one quarter-final match, and one semi-final match. The RSK Olimpiyskyi Stadium was chosen as a reserve stadium. Donetsk was chosen as the location for the IIHF Continental Cup 2013 ice hockey Super Final on 11-13 January.


Donetsk is home to about 140 museums. Among them, two large regional museums - Donetsk Region History Museum and Donetsk Regional Art Museum. Donetsk Region History Museum reveals the city's true identity and covers to the entire local community, diverse as it is. Set up in 1924, it offers an extensive expo with 120,000 exhibits: from archeological findings dating back to pre-historic times to the founding of the city by John Hughes, development of industry and coal mining, World War II and the Soviet times . FC Shaktar Museum was opened in 2010. This museum is the first Ukrainian museum to be nominated for a European Museum of the Year Award.

Pushkin Boulevard A beautiful green walkway that takes you away from Donetsk city life for a 2 km (1.24 mi) stroll. Here you can enjoy peaceful fountains, al fresco cafes and a number of interesting statues such as the monument to Taras Shevchenko. Donetsk is home to the world’s perhaps most famous plant forged out of steel, the intricate Mertsalov Palm, located on Pushkin Boulevard. Originally created for an exhibition in 1896 by Aleksei Mertsalov, a local blacksmith, out of a single rail, it represented the skills and power of the heavy industry in Czarist Russia.





Donetsk, at the time Yuzovka, was divided into two parts: north and south. In the southern part were the city's factories, railway stations, telegraph buildings, hospitals and schools. Not far from the factories was the English colony where the engineers and the management lived. After the construction of the residence of John Hughes and the various complexes for the foreign workers, the city's southern portion was constructed mainly in the English style. These buildings used rectangular and triangular shaped fa?ades, green rooftops, large windows, which occupied a large portion of the building, and balconies. In this part of the town, the streets were large and had pavements. A major influence on the formation of architecture in Donetsk was the official architect of a Novorossiya company — Moldingauyer. Preserved buildings of the southern part of Yuzovka consisted of the residences of John Hughes (1891, partially preserved), Bolfur (1889) and Bosse. In the northern part of Yuzovka, Novyi Svet, lived traders, craftsmen and bureaucrats. Here were located the market hall, the police headquarters and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus. The central street of Novyi Svet and the neighbouring streets were mainly edged by one- or two-story residential buildings, as well as markets, restaurants, hotels, offices and banks. A famous preserved building in the northern part of Yuzovka was the Hotel Great Britain. The first general plan of Stalino was made in 1932 in Odessa by the architect P. Golovchenko. In 1937, the project was partly reworked. These projects were the first in the city's construction bureau's history. A large portion of the city's buildings from the second half of the 20th century were designed by the architect Pavel Vigdergauz, which was given the Government award of the USSR for architecture in the city of Donetsk in 1978.


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